Should both Immediate Recall (IR) and Delayed Recall (DR) be administered ? How is recall performance interpreted ?

Immediate Recall (IR) and Delayed Recall (DR) each provide information on different aspects of memory.

IR = Immediate Recall or recall immediately after viewing the objects reflects the input of information or the person's encoding. Encoding is initial learning. It involves the input of information or "encoding" information into something manageable and accessible for later use. 20 individual items exceeds the normal working memory capacity of 7 +/- 2, pieces or chunks of information. Successful performance requires actively re-organizing the 20 items by using the theme/ context or grouping related items together to effectively manage the amount of information. If the person does not fully or effectively encode the information, it will not be stored or accessible for later use. Decreased immediate recall often reflects decreased attention, concentration, or poor working memory capacity (such as inability to simultaneously hold more than a couple of items in mind at once within a task), a lack of active studying (may be related to decreased initiation, motivation or apathy) or decreased use of effective strategies such as use of the context (theme) or categorization. The order of recall can reflect how the items were encoded (eg. grouped together in categories, in order of location etc)

DR = Delayed Recall or recall of objects after a 15 minute delay reflects the ability to hold onto information over time or retrieve information after it has been stored in short term memory storage.

It is important to examine the similarities and differences between IR and DR and analyze patterns of performance. For example

IR is = or nearly = to DR Interpretation: If both are low, it indicates that the amount of information that could be processed or encoded was very limited, but the information that went "into memory" was held over time.

IR > DR Interpretation:. A difference of more than a few items is unusual but may occur with anxiety or depression

IR > DR Interpretation: If IR is significantly greater that DR (eg IR = 10 and DR = 3), it suggests rapid forgetting or that memory decreases quickly over short periods. This may be related to weak encoding as reflected by poor strategy use; difficulty retrieiving information that was encoded into memory; or difficulty holding onto new information. If the items were stored in memory but the person is having difficulty with retreival or getting the information out of short term memory storage, cues often increase recall (cued recall) and/or the person is able to identify the correct item from a multiple choice (recognition). A recognition option is not yet available in this version. For cued recall, see the separate "cued recall question.

The CMT was designed so that recall results are examined in combination with awareness (estimation of memory performance before and after the task) and with strategy use (reported and observed by order of recall). The combination of all 3 together has implications for rehabilitation as detailed in the orginal test manual.